Kopelman, A. H. and S. S. Sadove. 1995. Ventilatory rate
differences between surface-feeding and non-surface feeding fin whales (Balaenoptera
physalus) in the waters off eastern Long Island, New York, USA, 1981-87.
Marine Mammal Science 11(2):200-208. |
Observations of feeding and ventilatory behavior of individual fin whales
(Balaenoptera physalus) were made from various vessels during the
months of May - September, 1981-87, in the waters off eastern Long Island,
N.Y., U.S.A.. Intervals between blows were measured and recorded to
the nearest second. Information about behavior was recorded, as were
location, depth, and surface temperature at sounding dives. Animals
observed feeding at the surface were noted as such, all others were
considered non-surface feeding. Data were compiled by individual,
month, year, and analyzed for mean interblow interval during surface
activity bouts; mean dive duration; and overall mean blow interval.
Overall mean blow intervals (± s.e.) of 47.89 ± 0.81s for feeding (n =
10411), and 57.92 ± 0.97s for non-surface feeding animals (n = 11024),
differed significantly (Mann-Whitney U, p < .001). Interblow intervals
for surface activity bouts (± s.e.) of 12.29 ± 0.05s for feeding (n = 7894),
and 13.58 ± 0.06s, for non-surface feeding animals (n = 8187), also differed
significantly (Mann-Whitney U, p < .001), as did mean dive duration (159.53
± 2.16s, n = 2517, for feeding animals; 185.86 ± 2.53s, n = 2837, for
non-surface feeding animals). Yearly comparisons of blow intervals
between feeding and non-surface feeding animals during surface activity
bouts yielded significant differences for each year except 1981, while
comparisons of dive durations yielded significant differences for all years
except 1981, 1982, and 1985.
RESIDENCY PATTERNS FOR FIN WHALES (Balaenoptera physalus) OFF LONG
ISLAND, NEW YORK.
Long, J. A.1 , Gorgone A. M. 2,
Sadove, S. S.
3, Forestell, P. H. 4, Kopelman, A.H. 5
(1, 2, 4) Long Island University, Southampton College, (3,
5) Coastal Research and Education Society of Long Island, Inc.
Surveys of fin whales, (Balaenoptera physalus) were conducted
during the months of May through September, from 1979 through 1996, off Long
Island, New York. Surveys primarily occurred aboard whale watching vessels.
When possible, individual identification photographs were collected on the
cruises. Photographs from 1981 through 1988 were compared for matches of
individuals based upon the technique described by Agler et al. All
identification type photographs were entered into a computer database to
facilitate a more rapid matching of individuals. Animals were keyed into the
database based upon dorsal fin type, chevron, and/or nicks and scars.
Initial matching was based upon these features. Final matches were made by
manually examining each slide and matching at least 5 major features for
Individual fin whales were found to occupy the region on a recurring
basis over numerous years. In some instances occupancy was repetitive on an
annual basis, while in other instances gaps of one or more years occurred.
Individual fin whales were found to occupy the region for a period of up to
9 weeks, however, many animals were not photographed on a continuous or
daily basis. This may not be indicative of movement from the area as surveys
throughout the entire occupancy area were often not possible aboard the
platform vessel. Residency diagrams presented with this study demonstrated a
clear preference to return to the region over a period of years.
In 1987, a very large number of new animals were seen in the area, as
some of the largest numbers of whales found in the region were observed. In
our analysis, this year had to be considered anomalous based upon the
extremely large number of whales found in the region. The large number of
whales seen has not been repeated since that time.
The resighting rate indicates that a significant number of animals seen
annually in the region were previously sighted individuals. Based upon the
high resighting rate and the long term annual recurrence of individual fin
whales, this area may be a significant seasonal residency site. However,
animals were not always seen in the same areas either within one year or
over a period of years. Resightings of whales indicate a use of the whole
area and not a specific trend to one site. Consequently, movement throughout
the area would be expected based upon our analysis.
OBSERVATIONS OF A HYPO-PIGMENTED HUMPBACK WHALE, MEGAPTERA NOVAEANGLIAE,
OFF EAST COAST AUSTRALIA: 1991- 2000
Forestell, P.R., Paton, D.A., Rodda, P. & Kaufman, G.D.
2001 1231: Observations of a hypo-pigmented humpback whale, Megaptera
novaeangliae, off east coast Australia: 1991-2000.Memoirs of the Queensland
Museum 47(2): 437-450. Brisbane. ISSN 0079-8835.
In 1991 an apparently all-white humpback whale was observed
and photographed from a shore-based observation platform in Byron Bay, NSW,
Australia. The following year, the same animal (based on comparison of
photographs of dorsal fill shape) was observed and extensively photographed in
Hervey Bay, Queensland. Since then, more than 50 reports of white whale
sightings have been obtained with reports in every year except 1997. The whale
appears to be an albino and is the only documented occurrence of an all-white
humpback whale. Sightings of this unusual animal provide important information
on the migratory characteristics of humpback whales along the east coast of
Australia. We investigated all known reports of a white whale from 1991-2000 and
applied a scale of verifiability to each report. We plotted the location and
time of each reliable sighting and summarised the range, rate of movement,
social patterns and annual changes in migratory characteristics based on these
reports. We present evidence that the white whale is now an adult male and
relate its movements to what is known about male humpback whales from other
Migratory movements of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae)
between New Caledonia, East Australia and New Zealand
GARRIGUE, C., FORESTELL, P., GREAVES, J., GILL P., NAESSIG
P., PATENAUDE, N. M. AND. BAKER, S. C. 2000. Migratory movements of
humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) between New Caledonia, East Australia
and New Zealand. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2(2):111-115
'Discovery’ marks and their recoveries from humpback whales
in the southwest Pacific provide no evidence of migratory interchange between
wintering grounds in New Caledonia and migratory corridors~ off east Australia
Island) and New Zealand, or wintering grounds in Tonga. To provide further
insight into the migratory connections among these regions, images of 169
individually-identified humpback whales from New Caledonia were compared with
the published catalogues of Australian (n = 1,088), Tongan (<i>n</i> = 78) and
New Zealand (<i>n</i> = I) humpback whales. Four of the New Caledonian humpbacks
were found to have migrated past east Australia and one past New Zealand in
separate years. No movement was found between New Caledonia and Tonga. These
data provide the first photographic information on exchanges between regions of
the southwest Pacific. Reviewed in light of historical records, these data also
highlight the necessity for further research in the South Pacific region to
resolve the question of the proposed segregation of the Southern Hemisphere
Group V stock into an eastern group (New Zealand and the Pacific Islands) and a
western group (east Australia).</p>
NESTING MOVEMENTS OF LEATHERBACK TURTLES TRACKED FROM CULEBRA AND FAJARDO, PR,
WITH POP-UP ARCHIVAL AND TDR SATELLITE TAGS
Russell Andrews2, Anders Rhodin3, Samuel Sadove4,
Carol Rehm Conroy5,Hector Horta6
New England Aquarium, Central Wharf, Boston, MA, 02110
Dept. of Zoology, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, BC Canada
Chelonian Research Foundation, Lunenburg, MA, 01462
Tradewind Associates, Box 361, Jamesport, NY 11947 USA
Operative Services, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA
Department of Natural Resouces, Fajardo, Puerto Rico
Movements of eleven leatherback sea turtles nesting in
Culebra and Fajardo, Puerto Rico, were determined with directly attached time
depth recorders (ST-TDR, 6 turtles) and pop-up archival satellite tags (5
turtles). Our main objective was to test the feasibility of using implanted
titanium bone anchors (used in humans) to secure both tag types directly
to the turtle’s carapace. Most ST- TDR duty cycles were set on
nearly continuous transmission to maximize early data return. Attachment periods
ranged from four days to over six months, the latter
exceeding the expected life-span of the ST-TDR’s battery. Some
turtles headed directly offshore, five bearing NW, and three to the
E/NE. One of these turtles was located off North Carolina when
transmissions ceased. One turtle moved directly NE, traveling over
4500 km to the Azores front via the mid-Atlantic ridge. At
least four turtles returned to nest, but their tags were the
earliest tags shed, suggesting that they may have been dislodged by mating
activities. Daily geolocation estimates were obtained from popup archival tags
while they remained on the turtles. Our results indicate that this nesting
assemblage disperses to widely separated Atlantic regions. Simple
modifications of our direct attachment methodology should allow us to greatly
extend tracking duration.
SIZE CLASS OF SEA TURTLES IN NEW YORK FROM 1986 TO 1996
David P. Reynolds1 and Samuel S. Sadove2,3
1. Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel
University, Philadelphia, PA 19104;
Research and Education Society of Long Island, Inc
3. Puffin Consulting Inc.,
PO Box 361, Jamesport, NY, 11947
Inshore embayments along the eastern Atlantic seaboard appear to provide
important summer foraging habitat for juvenile sea turtles. The occurrence of
sea turtles is seasonal in the temperate waters around Long Island, New York.
Sea turtles regularly caught in commercial fishing gear (pound nets) in this
area are loggerhead (Caretta caretta), Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys
kempi) and green (Chelonia mydas) turtles. These captures are a
result of an ongoing program with commercial fishermen.
Upon capture, straight carapace length (SCL), width, and mass were measured.
We tagged turtles with either a Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag or a
Monel Tag. All data was recorded for the New York Sea Turtle Stranding and
Salvage Network and the NMFS Cooperative Marine Turtle Tagging Program. We
compared the variance of SCL for loggerhead, Kemp's ridley and green sea
turtles. An ANOVA of SCL showed no significant difference for 1986 to 1996 for
loggerhead (p = 0.5525), Kemp's ridley (p = 0.5584) and green (p = 0.3492) sea
turtles. Straight carapace lengths for these loggerhead (mean = 49.4, SD = 1.34,
n = 233), Kemp's ridley (mean = 30.2, SD = 1.43, n = 107), and green (mean =
32.2, SD = 4.54, n = 80) sea turtles indicate that they were juveniles.
Earlier studies of migration and diets of Kemp's ridleys and loggerheads in
New York waters used specimens collected by pound nets. The reported means of
SCL in previous studies were similar to those found in this analysis. This study
indicates that there has been no significant change in mean SCL of three species
of sea turtles over a 10-year period.
CAPTURES OF SEA TURTLES IN NEW YORK: SPECIES COMPOSITION SHIFT EXAMINED
David P. Reynolds1 and Samuel S. Sadove2,3
1 Marine Science Program, Southampton College/LIU,
Southampton, NY 11968
2 Puffin Consulting Inc., PO Box 361, Jamesport, NY 11947
3 Coastal Research and Educational Society of Long Island,
Sea turtle incidence is seasonal and considered common for the temperate
waters around Long Island. Sea turtles regularly caught in commercial
fishing gear (pound nets) were the loggerhead (Caretta caretta), Kemp’s
ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) and the green turtle (Chelonia mydas). These
captures were part of a cooperative program with commercial fisherman
between 1986 and 1996. Upon capture, straight carapace length, width, and
weight were recorded. Each animal was then tagged with either a Monel
flipper tag or Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag.
Sea turtles taken in pound net captures in 1996 included 31 original
captures and 5 recaptures. The 31 original captures included 7 greens, 12
ridley’s, and 12 loggerheads. The recaptures included 3 greens, 1 ridley and
1 loggerhead. In all years except 1992, the total number of sea turtle
captures was greater than the number recovered in 1996. The pound net
recovery program was initiated in 1986. Between the years of 1986-1989 the
numbers of turtles recovered were influenced to an unknown degree by effort.
As a result the numbers of animals recovered during this time is difficult
to correlate to the current numbers of recoveries.
In all years until 1996, loggerheads were the dominant species captured.
From 1986 to 1995 the number of loggerheads recovered represented from 48%
to 78% of total captures. The data revealed a significant decrease of
loggerheads for 1996 compared to previous years. The number of loggerheads
recovered for 1996 was 12. The decrease of total sea turtles captured in
1996 is largely accounted for by the decrease in the number of loggerheads
recovered. In all years except 1990, the total number of loggerheads
recovered was greater than either greens or ridley’s. The mean number of
loggerheads per year for all years is 19.54 (sd ±10.24) and the twelve
loggerheads recovered in 1996 is significantly lower. The decrease in
loggerhead and total sea turtles was also observed in the stranding records
for New York State during 1996.
Concurrent with the decrease in loggerhead captures was an increase in
the percentage of green sea turtles recovered. The percentage of green
turtles captured in 1996 was 22%. The mean percentage for all previous years
was 17%. With the exception of 1994, the number of green turtles recovered
remained relatively stable from 1985 to 1996 with a mean of 6.36 (sd ±5.6)
and 7 were recovered in 1996. The seven original captures in 1996 are not
significantly different than the mean and again the increase in the
percentage of green is related to the decrease in loggerhead recoveries.
Turtle captures in the waters of eastern Long Island have shown similar
patterns from 1986 to 1995. In 1996, however, turtles were recovered in
western Shinnecock Bay and Peconic Bay. The Peconic Bay recoveries were due
to a newly introduced fishing method in the Peconic system known locally as
‘fish pots.’ These pots are very different in design than pound nets since
the entire structure is submerged. The structure of these traps would
prevent entrapped sea turtles from surfacing to breathe, something a pound
net does not do. Although both turtles caught in these “pots” were alive
they were likely only recently trapped. This fishery could cause mortality,
something we have not seen yet in pound nets for New York.
The decrease in the number of loggerheads observed is not well understood
at this time. The 1996 summer was slightly cooler than recent years and it
is possible water temperatures effected the distribution of this species to
the region. Unfortunately, data on temperatures in earlier years was not
available for complete analysis and further examination may elucidate what
effect, if any this had. It is also possible that the local pound net
fishing effort may have effected the capture of this species. Due to recent
New York State regulations regarding take of bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix).
This has been reported by the fisherman to cause them to both shorten their
season and reduce the numbers of nets they are fishing. We are presently
attempting to quantify this. However, it involves somewhat subjective data
since the effort of each individual has not been quantified in previous
years and is solely based upon reports of the number of nets set. Although
there was a significant increase in the number of cold-stunned sea turtles
in 1995 (fig) it is unlikely this has effected the number of loggerheads
recovered in 1996. Standard carapace length measurements for all years and
1996 are quite similar (ref)with a very small standard deviation (1986-1995
mean 50.07 sd ±6.44; 1996 mean 49.79 sd ±5.57). This indicates that turtles
found here are largely a single year class, and subsequent year classes
recoveries would not be effected by the previous years cold-stunning.
It is also possible that some factor outside the New York region has
caused a decrease in the number of loggerhead recovered. This could include
various populations parameters or changes in Gulf Stream eddies. These were
not examined for this study.
Continuation of the monitoring of sea turtle populations in New York will
enable a better understanding of the distribution and habitat usage’s of
these species. It will also assist in identifying sources of mortalities not
seen in other areas. The long term nature of this study is unique for the
Northeastern United States and provides important information of sea turtle
movements in northern waters that may be part of developmental habitats.